059 -Behavior Modification Basics Part 2

 
 
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Happiness Isn’t Brain Surgery:
Behavior Modification Basics/Part 2
Presented by: Dr. Dawn-Elise Snipes
Executive Director, AllCEUs
Host: Counselor Toolbox

Continuing Education (CE) credits for addiction and mental health counselors, social workers and marriage and family therapists can be earned for this presentation at
https://www.allceus.com/member/cart/index/product/id/575/c/

Objectives
–¬†¬† ¬†Continue to explore the usefulness of behavior modification
–¬†¬† ¬†Review basic behavior modification terms:
–¬†¬† ¬†Unconditioned stimulus and response
–¬†¬† ¬†Conditioned stimulus and response
–¬†¬† ¬†Discriminitive stimuli
–¬†¬† ¬†Learned helplessness
–¬†¬† ¬†Learn additional modification terms:
–¬†¬† ¬†Reinforcement
–¬†¬† ¬†Punishment
–¬†¬† ¬†Extinction Burse
–¬†¬† ¬†Premack Principle

Why Do I Care
–¬†¬† ¬†Change means doing something different or modifying a response
–¬†¬† ¬†While stimuli prompt a behavior, reinforcement and punishment are associated with motivation
–¬†¬† ¬†Understanding these principles will help you
–¬†¬† ¬†Elicit a behavior
–¬†¬† ¬†Increase the likelihood it will happen again
–¬†¬† ¬†Decrease the likelihood of unwanted behaviors
Review basic behavior modification terms

–¬†¬† ¬†Unconditioned stimulus and response
–¬†¬† ¬†Loud noise / startle
–¬†¬† ¬†Bright light / squinting
–¬†¬† ¬†Conditioned stimulus and response
–¬†¬† ¬†Doorbell / answer the door
–¬†¬† ¬†Yellow light / slow down
–¬†¬† ¬†Discriminitive stimuli
–¬†¬† ¬†Set the occasion for the behavior (reminder stickies, pictures, alarms,
–¬†¬† ¬†Learned helplessness
–¬†¬† ¬†Lack of responsiveness to a stimulus when all options have been exhausted

New Terms
–¬†¬† ¬†Positive Reinforcement
–¬†¬† ¬†Providing something positive in order to increase the likelihood a behavior will occur again
–¬†¬† ¬†Examples
–¬†¬† ¬†Food
–¬†¬† ¬†Money (Paycheck)
–¬†¬† ¬†Validation
–¬†¬† ¬†Promotion
–¬†¬† ¬†Power (Choosing activities)
–¬†¬† ¬†What can be added that is rewarding AND helpful for the person
New Terms
–¬†¬† ¬†Negative Reinforcement
–¬†¬† ¬†Removing something negative in order to increase the likelihood a behavior will occur again
–¬†¬† ¬†Examples
–¬†¬† ¬†Reducing mandatory counseling sessions
–¬†¬† ¬†Dropping restitution or additional charges upon completion
–¬†¬† ¬†Can leave the table once vegetables are eaten
–¬†¬† ¬†What can be eliminated that would be considered rewarding AND helpful for the person

New Terms
–¬†¬† ¬†Positive Punishment
–¬†¬† ¬†Adding something negative to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will recur
–¬†¬† ¬†Examples
–¬†¬† ¬†Antabuse
–¬†¬† ¬†Spanking
–¬†¬† ¬†Additional sessions
–¬†¬† ¬†Rubberband snaps
–¬†¬† ¬†What can be added that would be considered unpleasant for the person

New Terms
–¬†¬† ¬†Negative Punishment
–¬†¬† ¬†Removing something positive to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will recur
–¬†¬† ¬†Examples
–¬†¬† ¬†Grounding/priviledges
–¬†¬† ¬†Money (Fines)
–¬†¬† ¬†Jail
–¬†¬† ¬†Relationship/Setting boundaries
–¬†¬† ¬†Control/power
–¬†¬† ¬†What can be eliminated that would be considered undesirable

Types of Rewards and Punishments
–¬†¬† ¬†Rewards and Punishments can be:
–¬†¬† ¬†Emotional (Happiness)
–¬†¬† ¬†Mental (Improved decision making, cognitive clarity)
–¬†¬† ¬†Physical (Appearance, health, pain, energy, sleep, relaxation)
–¬†¬† ¬†Social (Acceptance, admiration, support)
–¬†¬† ¬†Spiritual/Karmic
–¬†¬† ¬†Financial
–¬†¬† ¬†Environmental (freedom, pleasant conditions)

Apply It
–¬†¬† ¬†The more rewards that can be gained the stronger the motivation to repeat the behavior
–¬†¬† ¬†Drugs/Addictive Behaviors
–¬†¬† ¬†Positive Reinforcement: Dopamine
–¬†¬† ¬†Negative Reinforcement: Numbing of Pain
–¬†¬† ¬†Self-Injury
–¬†¬† ¬†Positive reinforcement: Endogenous opioids, feeling of control
–¬†¬† ¬†Negative reinforcement: Numbing of pain

New Term
–¬†¬† ¬†Behavior Strain
–¬†¬† ¬†The point at which the reinforcement or punishment is no longer effective
–¬†¬† ¬†Effected by:
–¬†¬† ¬†Age
–¬†¬† ¬†Cognitive development
–¬†¬† ¬†Strength of the reinforcement or punishment
–¬†¬† ¬†Smaller, more frequent rewards for completion of smaller goals:
–¬†¬† ¬†Provide rapid benefits
–¬†¬† ¬†Maintain momentum
New Term
–¬†¬† ¬†Extinction Burst
–¬†¬† ¬†A temporary increase in a behavior when rewards are absent or insufficient
–¬†¬† ¬†Child in the store
–¬†¬† ¬†Pigeon wanting food
–¬†¬† ¬†‚ÄúActing Out‚ÄĚ
–¬†¬† ¬†The behavior ceases when the demands/costs of the behavior exceed the potential reward
–¬†¬† ¬†Promotion
–¬†¬† ¬†Treatment
New Term
–¬†¬† ¬†Premack Principle
–¬†¬† ¬†Concurrently pairing something undesirable with something desirable
–¬†¬† ¬†Examples
–¬†¬† ¬†Laundry folding with watching television
–¬†¬† ¬†Exercise with socialization/puppy time/nature
–¬†¬† ¬†Studying with peer pressure
–¬†¬† ¬†Cleaning with music/tv/aromatherapy
–¬†¬† ¬†Work with coffee

Apply It
–¬†¬† ¬†Behavior 1: Social Withdrawal
–¬†¬† ¬†Social withdrawal is rewarding mainly due to negative reinforcement (elimination of the unpleasant)
Apply It
–¬†¬† ¬†Behavior 2: Explosive Anger
Apply It
–¬†¬† ¬†Behavior 3: Emotional Eating
Summary
–¬†¬† ¬†If you eliminate a behavior, you must replace it with at least one, preferably 3 new ones
–¬†¬† ¬†People are ‚Äúmotivated‚ÄĚ for rewards and to avoid punishment.
–¬†¬† ¬†Decisional balance exercises can help people make new behaviors rewarding and old behaviors‚Ķless rewarding
–¬†¬† ¬†Reinforcers must be reinforcing to the person (i.e. jail avoidance to a career criminal, money to Trump)
–¬†¬† ¬†Likewise, punishments must be unpleasant
–¬†¬† ¬†Rewards and Punishments can be:
–¬†¬† ¬†Emotional (Happiness)
–¬†¬† ¬†Mental (Improved decision making, cognitive clarity)
–¬†¬† ¬†Physical (Appearance, health, pain, energy, sleep, relaxation)
–¬†¬† ¬†Social (Acceptance, admiration, support)
–¬†¬† ¬†Spiritual/Karmic
–¬†¬† ¬†Financial
–¬†¬† ¬†Environmental (freedom, pleasant conditions)

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